Guides

Raw vs Jpeg

PSEUDO STICKY WIKI

PSEUDO STICKY WIKI
Pseudo sticky

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General information and notes from /p/
This is not a formal document and changes frequently. Think of it as a series of notes. Use Ctrl-F.

Not all images are linked into the main document: Refer to the “Photos” section for a complete list: http://pseudosticky.wikia.com/wiki/Special:NewFiles

For an overview: expand the Contents [show] menu below.
Use ctrl-F to search for keywords of interest.

General Etiquette
Resize your images
Pimp your photos not your site
JPG good PNG bad
EXIF or not
Generally /p/ prefers to see how the image was produced, so exif data is generally desirable.
Conversely some posters find it useful to remove some or all exif data to focus viewers attention on the image.
If you don’t know which you prefer, just leave it in. But make sure you know what you are posting first, as it may include GPS position or your Name, which some users prefer to omit.
Exposure time, Aperture, Sensitivity, EV, Focal length, Camera mode are the basics of interest.
There are many browser plugins and stand-alone applications for managing exif data.
http://www.google.com/search?q=exif+data
http://regex.info/exif.cgi
What Camera
WhyNoWatCameraSticky.png

Do some research, then discuss. But do your homework first.
Keep in mind that “Hurr wat camera? durr” threads are the worst form of gearfaggotry on /p/ – many users hide them immediately.
The people who do respond will generally be those who have recently researched and/or purchased a camera… But not always: some will be commenting based on outdated or inherently uninformed opinions.
It can be difficult to determine which of these made a good choice, or have any breadth of practical experience with different gear to know what they are talking about, or are enthusiastic newbies who’s opinion may not be balanced, or are mindless brand-loyalty fanboys.
Start here:
http://snapsort.com/compare
then, when you have gained some basic technical knowledge…
and realise that snapsort is overly simplified…
and that all ‘compare’ tools are at least a little biased:
http://www.dpreview.com/products/compare/cameras
and
http://www.dxomark.com/index.php/Cameras/Compare-Camera-Sensors

Or do you even need a DSLR?
http://reviews.cnet.com/less-than-$100-digital-cameras/
Also:
http://pseudosticky.wikia.com/#Comparison_Tools
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Camerapedia
What camera can I buy for $X?

Most cameras within a given price range will be functionally quite similar.
So the main questions you need to ask yourself are:
1) What do you intend to use the camera for?
2) How much are you prepared to spend?
1) What do you intend to use the camera for?
First: consider that the lens’ focal length and aperture plays a significant role making the camera useful for a particular task.
But remember that just because a lens is typically used for a particular task does not mean it can only be used that way.
Wildlife? Team sports? – Telephoto lens. ~200mm, 300mm, 600mm
Snapshots of your daily activities? – Wide-angle to small-telephoto zoom lens. ~15-130mm
Snowboarding? Skateboarding? Individual sports? – ultrawide lens. ~10mm, 20mm
Classic ‘Street’ photography? – wide angle ~28mm
Night or low light photography? – ‘fast’ ‘normal’ lens. ~50mm f/1.4
Portraiture? – fast ‘normal’ or small telephoto. ~50mm, 85mm, 100mm
Macro? – small telephoto with macro mode, teleconverter, bellows, extension tubes. ~100mm
etc etc
Similarly there are a myriad of important lens aspects.
A lens’ widest aperture size.
How sharp images are when the lens aperture is used ‘wide open’.
How close the lens can focus.
The kinds of visual aberrations the lens produces.
The ‘character’ of the out of focus image areas (boke / bokeh)
‘Zooms’ typically have a lower image quality and are less useful in low light situations than ‘Primes’, but may be more practical in a variety of every-day situations, and both can be supported with a flash in low light.
etc, etc
2) How much are you prepared to spend?
TL;DR:
DSLRs ~$1000+
Point and shoot (P&S) digital cameras ~$200+
Older film cameras as little as $20 +ongoing film costs.
Camera features change a lot, and the gear you want or need is highly individual and often fairly subjective.
But ultimately basic camera functions are very few, and cameras are essentially quite simple devices.
Paradoxically they can also be incredibly complex marvels of miniaturisation and engineering.
The key question is which combination of the two extremes you really need.
In the age of the Internet it has become possible to extensively research and purchase only the very best gear in the world.
That does not mean ‘the best’ is the most appropriate or cost effective for your purposes.
Always be aware that Corporate marketers strongly influence and artificially generate internet content and ‘opinion’, and usually sponsor popular review sites.
Almost any modern camera will suit the new photographer.
Some will suit the new owner developing basic photographic skills.
Some will have features or a design that better suits expert users who want to work a particular way.
Some will simply be designed for the majority of people who only need an automatic point and shoot camera, but want to buy a full-frame digital SLR.
Some will suit everybody from beginner to expert, but lack some bells and whistles, or some automated foolproofing.
Remember that you are buying a camera and at least one lens.
You could buy into a particular film/sensor size system, and then choose a camera and lenses based around that system.
You could research the camera body only, just accept whatever standard ‘kit lens’ comes with it, and worry about other lenses later.
Or you could deeply research lenses and camera, to get maximum benefit from both.
etc, etc
There are many ways to approach where to start.
But you still need to get your head around what is available, and learn some of the most basic concepts and terminology, before you can even hope to get a useful response from /p/ about what camera you should buy.

TL;DR: the current model Canon PowerShot
No but really…

Disregard bodies, acquire glass.
The lens is generally more important than the camera.
The gear doth not a pro maketh. (Your camera does not matter)
A good camera does not automatically make you a good photographer. In the right hands a crap camera can take a good photo.
Many users will never notice a lesser cameras limitations, nor fully utilise a great camera.
The Cake is a lie.
Some camera marketing departments try to convince us:
To ‘upgrade’ to a ‘better’ camera every few months.
That their entry level gear is related in quality and features to their professional gear.
That crippled features aren’t just a means of getting you to upgrade when you realise you want that feature.
Consider the underdog.
Never overlook a previous generation camera or a particular brand because of opinion or marketing, they may offer a better deal for a simpler camera, better legacy lens support, less unnecessary built-in support costs, better basic features, camera controls, or build quality.
Selection 2014-01-29–15-06-24.jpg
Video
Video is /p/ee’s adopted sibling.
Use the catalog to find the /vid/ – Video General thread.

Defacto vid sticky – http://pastebin.com/SjKPtgCj

R.I.P. Defacto vid sticky – https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Gh-fomKSuIEZ-GJo2tere4YMjsDvmmsuyiJKzQ-1ZRk/edit
Learn to Pee
pee’s Photo Challenge
1444834308869.jpg
“/p/ Roll. You know what to do”
A photo challenge selection sheet.

1444834390019.gif
“The /p/’s out of ideas dice game”
A photo challenge selection sheet.

/p/hotographs
An amassed list of pee’s flickr/500px/tumblr/facebook/etc
http://pseudosticky.wikia.com/-P-hotos
pee’s photobooks
2012-04 Producer: BJDrew !!LkyLqEm9G0v
http://www.blurb.com/b/3100411-a-photography-collection-from-the-internet-s-wild
2013-03 Producer: NatureGuy !!tg3hbUo06u8
http://www.blurb.com/b/4145243-p-photo-book-2-0-small
http://www.blurb.com/b/4145886-p-photo-book-2-0-large
2014-03 Producer: Iggy !!/aAbIR4ZhLS
http://www.blurb.com/b/5134098-p-2013-small 10×8 in. (25×20 cm)
http://www.blurb.com/b/5132777-p-2013-large 13×11 in. (33×28 cm)
2015-03 Producer: Iggy !!/aAbIR4ZhLS
http://www.blurb.com/b/6074398-p-2014
https://mega.co.nz/#!YBh3XbpS!XEBifVySNaQ4pRkygn6XKJZQ7jjY3vvgqiCyTv6mGQg
http://www.mediafire.com/view/bz9eooz5d522a2j/p2014.pdf
2016-03(-09) Producer: Iggy !!/aAbIR4ZhLS
Iggy’s License to /p/hotobook Revoked Edition
http://www.blurb.com/b/7343889-p-2015
http://www.mediafire.com/download/v8memfvjoeav3ua/p+2015.pdf

2018-09-16 TODO: cleanup
reportedly functional
DOWNLOAD: https://www.dropbox.com/s/lyiy5oyg25p885s/p%20-%20not%20dead%20yet%20-%20small.pdf?dl=0
SMALL: http://www.blurb.com/b/8944321-p-not-dead-yet
LARGE: http://www.blurb.com/b/8944314-p-not-dead-yet
PDF: https://www.dropbox.com/s/jd8p2sl2ndag5rx/p%20Issue%20No-1%20%C3%81g%C3%A6tis%20Byrjun.pdf?dl=0
ePub: https://www.dropbox.com/s/1ndrpo6qwo9eiv9/:p:%20Issue%20No-1%20%C3%81g%C3%A6tis%20Byrjun.epub?dl=0

pee’s zine
http://z-ine.tumblr.com/
pee’s image selection (theoretically these are all the same, but Legend has it that some have been expanded with newer images too)
(2 part rar)
http://www.mediafire.com/?0b6br3vbfs3a82p
http://www.mediafire.com/?g8ldl2l27thj8yc
or (torrent)
http://www.mediafire.com/?jmfi9z8n0nrnde5
or (google drive)
https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B72A_myh688VOXBkdUg3ck53TE0&usp=sharing
or (lolfilename version)
http://www.4shared.com/zip/e3t-dblC/РС80С85РР.html
pee’s flickr groups
http://www.flickr.com/groups/4chanphoto/
http://www.flickr.com/groups/4chanphaggots/
http://www.flickr.com/groups/travellingcamera/
http://www.flickr.com/groups/internetswildwest/
Mister B’s Wonderful and Enchanting /p/ Photo Book Share
http://pastebin.com/EHruhwvq
Photato Challenge – weekly
http://photato-challenge.tumblr.com/
Existing Thread Archives
http://chanarchive.org/4chan/p
Where’s Waldo
http://www.zeemaps.com/pub?group=411832
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AgjkDzAQY1C2dDNGZmw5MDVhMU9jb200QUlPaVRNQXc
Photoshop® Archives
http://photoshoparchives.blogspot.com.au/
5hoe live stream – post production technique
http://www.livestream.com/5hoe_photography
(R.I.P.) Index Thread/Script
http://pastebin.com/LLeZ2dea
(R.I.P.)Photo Challenge Threads
http://slashpslash.tumblr.com/
(R.I.P.)Photography from the beginning – Anon !!dx2QRdCf9Oy (work in progress – a /p/ beginners guide to photography)
http://docs.google.com/document/d/1RwJA3MIEsEOQNY18zjFQ3Aa8vkQcxs_q_Qz9IFbUt_4/edit?usp=sharing
How I spend my day. /p/ Edition.

Learn to 4chan
Avoid Banhammer
http://www.4chan.org/rules
http://www.4chan.org/rules#p
Delete Doh Posts
http://www.4chan.org/faq#delete
Archive
https://fgts.jp/p/

Guides and Tutorials
Saved threads archive
http://chanarchive.org/4chan/p
Negative Workflow from Capture to Print – Camera Scanning
https://luminous-landscape.com/articleImages/CameraScanning.pdf
Basics of Flash Photography
http://www.scantips.com/lights/flashbasics.html
Sliderule – The Best Free Online Photography Courses and Tutorials
http://www.mysliderule.com/blog/2014/lists/learn-photography-online-courses-tutorials/
National Geographic Photography Basics – Ultimate Field Guide to Photography
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ebooklets/e_ultimate_photo_guide.pdf
Photo Tips, Photos, Galleries, Videos, Photography – National Geographic
http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photo-tips/
Strobist: Lighting 101
http://strobist.blogspot.com/2006/03/lighting-101.html
Digital Photography Tutorials
http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials.htm
101 Things I Have Learned about Street Photography
http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2010/09/101-things-i-have-learned-about-street-photography/
Worth1000 | Photography Tutorials | Theory – Breaking the Rules
http://www.worth1000.com/tutorials/161642/theory-breaking-the-rules
LensRentals.com – Good Times with Bad Filters

Good Times with Bad Filters


Building a DIY tilt-shift lens
http://cow.mooh.org/projects/tiltshift/diyguide.html
Light Painting Tutorial | Shaping El Wire
http://denniscalvert.net/blog/
How A Commonly-Used AF Technique Causes Focus Errors *also see: Petzval field curvature
http://visual-vacations.com/Photography/focus-recompose_sucks.htm
Reverse-Lens Macro Photography
Reverse-Lens Macro Photography [tutorial]
How to create supermacro lens

Are you ready for your embed?
http://blogs.reuters.com/photographers-blog/2011/12/20/are-you-ready-for-your-embed/
Project : Ring Light
http://metku.net/index.html?path=mods/ring-light/index_eng
Photography Q&A
http://photo.stackexchange.com/
Photography Composition Articles
http://photoinf.com/
Digital Photography School
http://www.digital-photography-school.com/
The Photo Argus
http://www.thephotoargus.com/
ProPhotoResource

Home


Making the Most of Long Exposure Handhelds
http://www.pentaxforums.com/reviews/long-exposure-handhelds/introduction.html
Photozone – Reviews and price comparisons
http://www.photozone.de/
Great Compositions – Adam Marelli
http://www.adammarelliphoto.com/category/great-compositions/
Urban Exploration Resource – Forum
http://www.uer.ca/forum_showcats.asp?fid=1
Bernie’s Better Beginner’s Guide to Photography for Computer Geeks Who Want to be Digital Artists
http://berniesumption.com/photography/beginners-guide-for-geeks/
Strobox
http://strobox.com/
Worth1000 – tutorials
http://photography.worth1000.com/tutorials
Light Stalking
http://www.lightstalking.com/
Visual Perception and Aesthetics
http://www.androidblues.com/visualperception.html
100 Helpful Photography Tutorials for Beginners and Professionals
http://photo.tutsplus.com/articles/round-ups/100-helpful-photography-tutorials-for-beginners-and-professionals/
Posing and Directing Photography Tips
http://www.dphotojournal.com/posing-and-directing-photography-tips/
The Art of the Pose

The Art of the Pose


Digital cameras Hacks
http://hackaday.com/category/digital-cameras-hacks/
Open-source camera could revolutionize digital photography
http://news.stanford.edu/news/2009/august31/levoy-opensource-camera-090109.html
Virtual Lighting Studio
http://www.zvork.fr/vls/
Barn Door Tracker
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barn_door_tracker
Using a Twist Jar Opener as Follow Focus

Using a Twist Jar Opener as Follow Focus


Using Moire’ Interference Patterns to Test DSLR Auto Focus
http://www.komar.org/faq/camera/auto-focus-test/
5 Reasons Why You Shouldn’t Be Sneaky When Shooting Street Photography
http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2011/04/5-reasons-why-you-shouldnt-be-sneaky-when-shooting-street-photography/
How to Become a Fearless Street Photographer
http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2011/05/how-to-become-a-fearless-street-photographer/
Digital Camera World: Photography Cheat Sheet
http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/tag/photography-cheat-sheet/
Digital Camera World: Beginners Guides
http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/category/beginners-guides/
Digital Camera World: Tutorials
http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/category/tutorials/
Digital Camera World: Photography Tips
http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/category/photography-tips-2/
250 photography tutorials
http://www.pixiq.com/article/photography-tutorials
How to take a flattering portrait. – Jawline
http://www.wimp.com/flatteringportrait/
Wild Photo Adventuures – videos
http://www.wildphotoadventures.com/watchshow.html
Pixel2Life Tutorials
http://www.pixel2life.com/
Posing Guide: 21 Sample Poses to Get You Started with Photographing Men

Posing Guide: 21 Sample Poses to Get You Started with Photographing Men


Posing Guide: 21 Sample Poses to Get You Started with Photographing Women – Part II

Posing Guide: 21 Sample Poses to Get You Started with Photographing Women – Part II


Beginning Photography Tips: Top 10 Techniques for Better Pictures
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/tips.asp
Kodak Photo Tips
http://www.kodak.co.ae/ek/SA/ar/Home_Main/Tips_Projects_Exchange/Learn/Photo_Tips.htm
Basic Photography Techniques – Perspective
http://photoinf.com/General/NAVY/Perspective.htm
http://photoinf.com/General/Klaus_Schroiff/Perspective.htm
http://photo.tutsplus.com/articles/composition-articles/maximizing-perspective-and-depth-in-your-photography/
Give Yourself an Honest Portfolio Review

Give Yourself an Honest Portfolio Review


The Beginner’s Guide To Film Photography – I Still Shoot Film:
http://istillshootfilm.org/beginners-guide-film-photography
Free Digital Photography Courses, Photography Lessons, and Tutorials
http://photographycourse.net/
Hacking Photography For The Love of It
http://www.diyphotography.net
BudgetAstro
http://www.budgetastro.net/
A Complete Introduction to Photography (aka Reddit Photoclass)
http://www.alexandrebuisse.org/resources/photo-class
Great Product Photos

Shooting glassware on white background: high-key in product photography
http://www.photigy.com/tabletop-hi-key-product-photography-shooting-glassware/
Shoot this Photo – Broncolor – sample photos and their lighting explanations
http://www.bron.ch/broncolor/how-to/shoot-this-photo/samplephotos/
Professional Photography in Linux, Part 1

Professional Photography in Linux, Part 1


OKCupid-The 4 Big Myths of Profile Pictures
http://blog.okcupid.com/index.php/the-4-big-myths-of-profile-pictures/
OKCupid-Don’t Be Ugly By Accident!
http://blog.okcupid.com/index.php/dont-be-ugly-by-accident/
A Step-by-Step Beginner’s Guide to Photographing Your First Wedding

A Step-by-Step Beginner’s Guide to Photographing Your First Wedding


DIY
Mirror Grinding
http://www.scopemaking.net/mirror/mirror.htm
How I make Telescope Mirror Blanks
http://mdpub.com/scopeworks/blanks/

Basic Camera Functions
The following are the primary controls on a camera that enable the user to directly control their photographic outcome.
Any decent camera will have individual controls for each. Less desirable cameras may nest one or more of these basic functions in menus or multi-function buttons.

http://www.exposuretool.com/ – an interactive example
Exposure Time
A.K.A. Shutterspeed
Amount of time in fractions of a second, or whole seconds, that the film or sensor is exposed to light through the lens.

Tv mode (Time variable) uses exposure time as it’s main control variable.
Use fast exposure times to reduce blur due to camera shake with telephoto lenses, or motion blur on moving subjects.
Use slow exposure times for low light, when you can adequately stabilise the camera to avoid camera shake, and motion blur may be desirable.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposure_time
Aperture
Mechanical iris in the lens that controls the amount of light reaching the film/sensor, or the value to which it is set.

Av mode (Aperture variable) uses aperture size as it’s main control variable.
Use a “Wide aperture” (see below) to blur anything not specifically in focus.
Use a “Narrow aperture” (see below) to focus as much as possible within the full depth of the scene.
The numbers used to describe aperture are a ratio of focal length/aperture diameter.
This is often counter-intuitive because a larger number like 22 is actually a narrower iris opening or a ‘smaller aperture’. Conversely, a smaller number like 1.2 is a wider iris opening, a ‘larger aperture’.
eg: Aperture f/22 means the hole in the iris is 22 times smaller than the lens focal length. A quite narrow iris opening.
This would result in a deep depth of focus, and require strong light and/or a long exposure.
Aperture f/1.2 means the hole in the iris is 1.2 times smaller than the lens focal length. A quite wide iris opening.
This would result in a shallow depth of focus, and could be taken in poor light and/or a fast exposure time.
Lenses are described using the ratio of their focal length and largest iris opening.
eg: A lens with a 50mm focal length, maximum aperture of f/1.2 may be described as
50mm/1.2
50mm 1:1.2
50mm:1.2
1.2 50mm
etc
As aperture ratios get lower lenses transmit more light, become more expensive to produce, and are more difficult to accurately focus. Ratios lower than f/1.2 are uncommon. Ratios lower than f/0.9 are very uncommon. Etc.
f/8 is generally the middle point of lens aperture ranges, and is often the ratio that produces the sharpest image quality.
Theoretically, a given aperture ratio transfers the same amount of light through any lens regardless of focal length.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aperture
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-number
Sensitivity
Film / sensor light sensitivity.

Sv mode (Sensitivity variable) uses Sensitivity as it’s main control variable.
Higher numbers allow the camera to capture more light, at the expense of a more ‘grainy’ image.
Lower numbers need better lighting, but produce crisper image granularity.
Often just called ISO, or ASA, or DIN, despite the ambiguity of referencing the Standards Organisations rather than the specific film sensitivity Codes they establish.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_speed
Exposure Value (Compensation)
Note: Technically not one of the 3 ‘true’ seminal camera functions, but included here because it is inherently useful on any camera that has modes in addition to Manual mode (Tv, Av, Sv, TAv, X, Program, etc).

A quick and consistent way to brighten or darken what the camera meters as ‘properly’ exposed.
Typically cameras desaturate and meter 18% grey (18% black:82% white) as ‘correct’, and this results in a well exposed photo. However it is often advisable to correct this somewhat, particularly in scenes with extremes of darkness and/or brightness, or as an Artistic License adjustment to reflect how the Photographer wants to portray the scene, and/or to more accurately reflect reality.
Negative compensation (-EV) makes the resulting image darker.
eg: Due to a large DARK background, a smaller BRIGHT subject typically gets OVER exposed.
Using the right amount of negative compensation (-EV) helps correct this.
Positive compensation (+EV) makes the resulting image brighter.
eg: Due to a large BRIGHT background, a smaller DARK subject typically gets UNDER exposed.
Using the right amount of positive compensation (+EV) helps correct this.
Exposure compensation is less useful in Spot Metering mode, and more useful in Matrix, or Center Weighted metering modes that average the entire frame to obtain ‘correct’ exposure.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposure_compensation
Frequently Asked Questions
Do you even shoot
This links to a page that is an extension to this main wikia:
Photographic work by the denizens of /p/
http://pseudosticky.wikia.com/-P-hotos

Lens Hoods
Why use a lens hood?

They reduce the amount of light entering the lens from sources that are not part of the image, but which are still entering and illuminating the lens barrel, dust on internal lenses, and outside edges of optical elements. This can interfere with correct metering, or cause flaring, haze, or ghosting in the image. Therefore using a lens hood usually increases image contrast and reduces some undesirable effects from incidental lighting.
They offer the front element protection from fingerprints, bumps, and some protection from rain, and to a lesser degree from flying debris.
UV Filters
Why use a U.V. (Ultraviolet) filter?

Historically some film stock was susceptible to the effects of the UltraViolet part of the light spectrum, UV filters were used to eliminate the hazing effect ths may have had on the film negative.
Modern Sensors and film are significantly less effected by UV light, so the contemporary UV filter is commonly used simply to protect the front element of the lens against airborne grit, or corrosives such as salt spray. But because they also filter out Ultra-Violet light you may find that a UV filter helps cut down on haze in telephoto or shots of the extreme distance.
They are easier to clean and less important than the front element of your lens, and assuming the UV filter is of a reasonable quality, it will generally have little if any effect on image quality. However: Long exposures, shooting in low light, or otherwise any strong differences in light values may cause unwanted reflections inside the lens elements. This can be made worse by front element filters.
Regular glass absorbs UV light.
As far as a modern DSLR is concerned, a UV filter is basically just a sheet of glass to protect the lens.
A ‘good’ filter simply absorbs more UV while blocking or distorting visible light as little as possible.
If you choose to use a UV filter: a good quality filter will best serve a good quality lens/sensor to preserve optimum I.Q, but you may not even notice any negative effects from inferior UV filters.
Filters – UV or not UV?
http://photo.net/equipment/filters/
LensRentals.com – Good Times with Bad Filters

Good Times with Bad Filters


If you are exposing a lens to strong sunlight or UV light in order to kill fungus, always remove the UV filter.
Topic Status: Oh, THIS thread again.
Ayya !!GhEG2I2GWZy 01/25/15(Sun)17:16:13 No.2507961▶
We have this thread once a week and there’s nothing more to discuss
https://fgts.jp/p/search/text/UV%20filter/type/op/
Raw vs Jpeg
Should I shoot in raw or jpg?

Short answer:
Raw = Extensibility
Jpg = Convenience.

Raw: Extensibility.

If you want maximum flexibility and have time to process (but not necessarily *edit*) everything: use Raw.
Raw is sensor data written losslessly (no loss of color bit-depth or pixel precision) in the same file as, but separate from any in-camera image processing metadata such as color profiles or white balance etc.
Files are often approximately twice the file size of an equivalent Jpg.
The additional bit-depth used to store color data allows significant leeway for editing, particularly for recovering poor exposure or color imbalance.
Generally after post-processing the image is saved to an additional file format such as jpg (etc) for internet publication, or Tiff (etc) for compatibility with physical document printing houses.
Various proprietary formats of raw exist, most of their features are similar.
Raw is vaguely analogous to a film negative: It requires further processing.
Raw can to be infinitely, non-destructively edited, ignoring or including it’s original integral metadata, and with any additional modification data stored separately in text based ‘sidecar’ metadata files. This allows the master file to remain in its original state while any edits can be reloaded from relatively small text files, used to overlay the original raw data and re-edited at will.
Additional Notes:
Raw vs. DNG
http://www.beyondmegapixels.com/2012/01/raw-vs-dng/
Raw image format
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raw_image_format

Jpg: Convenience.

If you do not require best quality, nor the ability to recover errors, and need the image immediately: use Jpg.
Jpg data is permanently combined with any in-camera processing and destructively compressed (at the expense of color bit-depth and pixel precision) before being written to file.
Files are often approximately half the file size of an equivalent raw.
Various forms of jpg exist, most of the features relevant to photographs are similar.
Jpg is vaguely analogous to a polaroid photo: It is not intended to be edited.
Jpg images can of course be post-processed, but doing so is far less desirable because each time the file is written to jpg pixels may be moved due to compression, and the shallower color depth significantly limits editing possibilities.

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