Raw vs Jpeg


Pseudo sticky

General information and notes from /p/
This is not a formal document and changes frequently. Think of it as a series of notes. Use Ctrl-F.

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For an overview: expand the Contents [show] menu below.
Use ctrl-F to search for keywords of interest.

General Etiquette
Resize your images
Pimp your photos not your site
JPG good PNG bad
EXIF or not
Generally /p/ prefers to see how the image was produced, so exif data is generally desirable.
Conversely some posters find it useful to remove some or all exif data to focus viewers attention on the image.
If you don’t know which you prefer, just leave it in. But make sure you know what you are posting first, as it may include GPS position or your Name, which some users prefer to omit.
Exposure time, Aperture, Sensitivity, EV, Focal length, Camera mode are the basics of interest.
There are many browser plugins and stand-alone applications for managing exif data.
What Camera

Do some research, then discuss. But do your homework first.
Keep in mind that “Hurr wat camera? durr” threads are the worst form of gearfaggotry on /p/ – many users hide them immediately.
The people who do respond will generally be those who have recently researched and/or purchased a camera… But not always: some will be commenting based on outdated or inherently uninformed opinions.
It can be difficult to determine which of these made a good choice, or have any breadth of practical experience with different gear to know what they are talking about, or are enthusiastic newbies who’s opinion may not be balanced, or are mindless brand-loyalty fanboys.
Start here:
then, when you have gained some basic technical knowledge…
and realise that snapsort is overly simplified…
and that all ‘compare’ tools are at least a little biased:

Or do you even need a DSLR?$100-digital-cameras/
What camera can I buy for $X?

Most cameras within a given price range will be functionally quite similar.
So the main questions you need to ask yourself are:
1) What do you intend to use the camera for?
2) How much are you prepared to spend?
1) What do you intend to use the camera for?
First: consider that the lens’ focal length and aperture plays a significant role making the camera useful for a particular task.
But remember that just because a lens is typically used for a particular task does not mean it can only be used that way.
Wildlife? Team sports? – Telephoto lens. ~200mm, 300mm, 600mm
Snapshots of your daily activities? – Wide-angle to small-telephoto zoom lens. ~15-130mm
Snowboarding? Skateboarding? Individual sports? – ultrawide lens. ~10mm, 20mm
Classic ‘Street’ photography? – wide angle ~28mm
Night or low light photography? – ‘fast’ ‘normal’ lens. ~50mm f/1.4
Portraiture? – fast ‘normal’ or small telephoto. ~50mm, 85mm, 100mm
Macro? – small telephoto with macro mode, teleconverter, bellows, extension tubes. ~100mm
etc etc
Similarly there are a myriad of important lens aspects.
A lens’ widest aperture size.
How sharp images are when the lens aperture is used ‘wide open’.
How close the lens can focus.
The kinds of visual aberrations the lens produces.
The ‘character’ of the out of focus image areas (boke / bokeh)
‘Zooms’ typically have a lower image quality and are less useful in low light situations than ‘Primes’, but may be more practical in a variety of every-day situations, and both can be supported with a flash in low light.
etc, etc
2) How much are you prepared to spend?
DSLRs ~$1000+
Point and shoot (P&S) digital cameras ~$200+
Older film cameras as little as $20 +ongoing film costs.
Camera features change a lot, and the gear you want or need is highly individual and often fairly subjective.
But ultimately basic camera functions are very few, and cameras are essentially quite simple devices.
Paradoxically they can also be incredibly complex marvels of miniaturisation and engineering.
The key question is which combination of the two extremes you really need.
In the age of the Internet it has become possible to extensively research and purchase only the very best gear in the world.
That does not mean ‘the best’ is the most appropriate or cost effective for your purposes.
Always be aware that Corporate marketers strongly influence and artificially generate internet content and ‘opinion’, and usually sponsor popular review sites.
Almost any modern camera will suit the new photographer.
Some will suit the new owner developing basic photographic skills.
Some will have features or a design that better suits expert users who want to work a particular way.
Some will simply be designed for the majority of people who only need an automatic point and shoot camera, but want to buy a full-frame digital SLR.
Some will suit everybody from beginner to expert, but lack some bells and whistles, or some automated foolproofing.
Remember that you are buying a camera and at least one lens.
You could buy into a particular film/sensor size system, and then choose a camera and lenses based around that system.
You could research the camera body only, just accept whatever standard ‘kit lens’ comes with it, and worry about other lenses later.
Or you could deeply research lenses and camera, to get maximum benefit from both.
etc, etc
There are many ways to approach where to start.
But you still need to get your head around what is available, and learn some of the most basic concepts and terminology, before you can even hope to get a useful response from /p/ about what camera you should buy.

TL;DR: the current model Canon PowerShot
No but really…

Disregard bodies, acquire glass.
The lens is generally more important than the camera.
The gear doth not a pro maketh. (Your camera does not matter)
A good camera does not automatically make you a good photographer. In the right hands a crap camera can take a good photo.
Many users will never notice a lesser cameras limitations, nor fully utilise a great camera.
The Cake is a lie.
Some camera marketing departments try to convince us:
To ‘upgrade’ to a ‘better’ camera every few months.
That their entry level gear is related in quality and features to their professional gear.
That crippled features aren’t just a means of getting you to upgrade when you realise you want that feature.
Consider the underdog.
Never overlook a previous generation camera or a particular brand because of opinion or marketing, they may offer a better deal for a simpler camera, better legacy lens support, less unnecessary built-in support costs, better basic features, camera controls, or build quality.
Selection 2014-01-29–15-06-24.jpg
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pee’s photobooks
2012-04 Producer: BJDrew !!LkyLqEm9G0v
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Iggy’s License to /p/hotobook Revoked Edition

2018-09-16 TODO: cleanup
reportedly functional

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Guides and Tutorials
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Negative Workflow from Capture to Print – Camera Scanning
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Sliderule – The Best Free Online Photography Courses and Tutorials
National Geographic Photography Basics – Ultimate Field Guide to Photography
Photo Tips, Photos, Galleries, Videos, Photography – National Geographic
Strobist: Lighting 101
Digital Photography Tutorials
101 Things I Have Learned about Street Photography
Worth1000 | Photography Tutorials | Theory – Breaking the Rules – Good Times with Bad Filters

Good Times with Bad Filters

Building a DIY tilt-shift lens
Light Painting Tutorial | Shaping El Wire
How A Commonly-Used AF Technique Causes Focus Errors *also see: Petzval field curvature
Reverse-Lens Macro Photography
Reverse-Lens Macro Photography [tutorial]
How to create supermacro lens

Are you ready for your embed?
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Photozone – Reviews and price comparisons
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Urban Exploration Resource – Forum
Bernie’s Better Beginner’s Guide to Photography for Computer Geeks Who Want to be Digital Artists
Worth1000 – tutorials
Light Stalking
Visual Perception and Aesthetics
100 Helpful Photography Tutorials for Beginners and Professionals
Posing and Directing Photography Tips
The Art of the Pose

The Art of the Pose

Digital cameras Hacks
Open-source camera could revolutionize digital photography
Virtual Lighting Studio
Barn Door Tracker
Using a Twist Jar Opener as Follow Focus

Using a Twist Jar Opener as Follow Focus

Using Moire’ Interference Patterns to Test DSLR Auto Focus
5 Reasons Why You Shouldn’t Be Sneaky When Shooting Street Photography
How to Become a Fearless Street Photographer
Digital Camera World: Photography Cheat Sheet
Digital Camera World: Beginners Guides
Digital Camera World: Tutorials
Digital Camera World: Photography Tips
250 photography tutorials
How to take a flattering portrait. – Jawline
Wild Photo Adventuures – videos
Pixel2Life Tutorials
Posing Guide: 21 Sample Poses to Get You Started with Photographing Men

Posing Guide: 21 Sample Poses to Get You Started with Photographing Men

Posing Guide: 21 Sample Poses to Get You Started with Photographing Women – Part II

Posing Guide: 21 Sample Poses to Get You Started with Photographing Women – Part II

Beginning Photography Tips: Top 10 Techniques for Better Pictures
Kodak Photo Tips
Basic Photography Techniques – Perspective
Give Yourself an Honest Portfolio Review

Give Yourself an Honest Portfolio Review

The Beginner’s Guide To Film Photography – I Still Shoot Film:
Free Digital Photography Courses, Photography Lessons, and Tutorials
Hacking Photography For The Love of It
A Complete Introduction to Photography (aka Reddit Photoclass)
Great Product Photos

Shooting glassware on white background: high-key in product photography
Shoot this Photo – Broncolor – sample photos and their lighting explanations
Professional Photography in Linux, Part 1

Professional Photography in Linux, Part 1

OKCupid-The 4 Big Myths of Profile Pictures
OKCupid-Don’t Be Ugly By Accident!
A Step-by-Step Beginner’s Guide to Photographing Your First Wedding

A Step-by-Step Beginner’s Guide to Photographing Your First Wedding

Mirror Grinding
How I make Telescope Mirror Blanks

Basic Camera Functions
The following are the primary controls on a camera that enable the user to directly control their photographic outcome.
Any decent camera will have individual controls for each. Less desirable cameras may nest one or more of these basic functions in menus or multi-function buttons. – an interactive example
Exposure Time
A.K.A. Shutterspeed
Amount of time in fractions of a second, or whole seconds, that the film or sensor is exposed to light through the lens.

Tv mode (Time variable) uses exposure time as it’s main control variable.
Use fast exposure times to reduce blur due to camera shake with telephoto lenses, or motion blur on moving subjects.
Use slow exposure times for low light, when you can adequately stabilise the camera to avoid camera shake, and motion blur may be desirable.
Mechanical iris in the lens that controls the amount of light reaching the film/sensor, or the value to which it is set.

Av mode (Aperture variable) uses aperture size as it’s main control variable.
Use a “Wide aperture” (see below) to blur anything not specifically in focus.
Use a “Narrow aperture” (see below) to focus as much as possible within the full depth of the scene.
The numbers used to describe aperture are a ratio of focal length/aperture diameter.
This is often counter-intuitive because a larger number like 22 is actually a narrower iris opening or a ‘smaller aperture’. Conversely, a smaller number like 1.2 is a wider iris opening, a ‘larger aperture’.
eg: Aperture f/22 means the hole in the iris is 22 times smaller than the lens focal length. A quite narrow iris opening.
This would result in a deep depth of focus, and require strong light and/or a long exposure.
Aperture f/1.2 means the hole in the iris is 1.2 times smaller than the lens focal length. A quite wide iris opening.
This would result in a shallow depth of focus, and could be taken in poor light and/or a fast exposure time.
Lenses are described using the ratio of their focal length and largest iris opening.
eg: A lens with a 50mm focal length, maximum aperture of f/1.2 may be described as
50mm 1:1.2
1.2 50mm
As aperture ratios get lower lenses transmit more light, become more expensive to produce, and are more difficult to accurately focus. Ratios lower than f/1.2 are uncommon. Ratios lower than f/0.9 are very uncommon. Etc.
f/8 is generally the middle point of lens aperture ranges, and is often the ratio that produces the sharpest image quality.
Theoretically, a given aperture ratio transfers the same amount of light through any lens regardless of focal length.
Film / sensor light sensitivity.

Sv mode (Sensitivity variable) uses Sensitivity as it’s main control variable.
Higher numbers allow the camera to capture more light, at the expense of a more ‘grainy’ image.
Lower numbers need better lighting, but produce crisper image granularity.
Often just called ISO, or ASA, or DIN, despite the ambiguity of referencing the Standards Organisations rather than the specific film sensitivity Codes they establish.
Exposure Value (Compensation)
Note: Technically not one of the 3 ‘true’ seminal camera functions, but included here because it is inherently useful on any camera that has modes in addition to Manual mode (Tv, Av, Sv, TAv, X, Program, etc).

A quick and consistent way to brighten or darken what the camera meters as ‘properly’ exposed.
Typically cameras desaturate and meter 18% grey (18% black:82% white) as ‘correct’, and this results in a well exposed photo. However it is often advisable to correct this somewhat, particularly in scenes with extremes of darkness and/or brightness, or as an Artistic License adjustment to reflect how the Photographer wants to portray the scene, and/or to more accurately reflect reality.
Negative compensation (-EV) makes the resulting image darker.
eg: Due to a large DARK background, a smaller BRIGHT subject typically gets OVER exposed.
Using the right amount of negative compensation (-EV) helps correct this.
Positive compensation (+EV) makes the resulting image brighter.
eg: Due to a large BRIGHT background, a smaller DARK subject typically gets UNDER exposed.
Using the right amount of positive compensation (+EV) helps correct this.
Exposure compensation is less useful in Spot Metering mode, and more useful in Matrix, or Center Weighted metering modes that average the entire frame to obtain ‘correct’ exposure.
Frequently Asked Questions
Do you even shoot
This links to a page that is an extension to this main wikia:
Photographic work by the denizens of /p/

Lens Hoods
Why use a lens hood?

They reduce the amount of light entering the lens from sources that are not part of the image, but which are still entering and illuminating the lens barrel, dust on internal lenses, and outside edges of optical elements. This can interfere with correct metering, or cause flaring, haze, or ghosting in the image. Therefore using a lens hood usually increases image contrast and reduces some undesirable effects from incidental lighting.
They offer the front element protection from fingerprints, bumps, and some protection from rain, and to a lesser degree from flying debris.
UV Filters
Why use a U.V. (Ultraviolet) filter?

Historically some film stock was susceptible to the effects of the UltraViolet part of the light spectrum, UV filters were used to eliminate the hazing effect ths may have had on the film negative.
Modern Sensors and film are significantly less effected by UV light, so the contemporary UV filter is commonly used simply to protect the front element of the lens against airborne grit, or corrosives such as salt spray. But because they also filter out Ultra-Violet light you may find that a UV filter helps cut down on haze in telephoto or shots of the extreme distance.
They are easier to clean and less important than the front element of your lens, and assuming the UV filter is of a reasonable quality, it will generally have little if any effect on image quality. However: Long exposures, shooting in low light, or otherwise any strong differences in light values may cause unwanted reflections inside the lens elements. This can be made worse by front element filters.
Regular glass absorbs UV light.
As far as a modern DSLR is concerned, a UV filter is basically just a sheet of glass to protect the lens.
A ‘good’ filter simply absorbs more UV while blocking or distorting visible light as little as possible.
If you choose to use a UV filter: a good quality filter will best serve a good quality lens/sensor to preserve optimum I.Q, but you may not even notice any negative effects from inferior UV filters.
Filters – UV or not UV? – Good Times with Bad Filters

Good Times with Bad Filters

If you are exposing a lens to strong sunlight or UV light in order to kill fungus, always remove the UV filter.
Topic Status: Oh, THIS thread again.
Ayya !!GhEG2I2GWZy 01/25/15(Sun)17:16:13 No.2507961▶
We have this thread once a week and there’s nothing more to discuss
Raw vs Jpeg
Should I shoot in raw or jpg?

Short answer:
Raw = Extensibility
Jpg = Convenience.

Raw: Extensibility.

If you want maximum flexibility and have time to process (but not necessarily *edit*) everything: use Raw.
Raw is sensor data written losslessly (no loss of color bit-depth or pixel precision) in the same file as, but separate from any in-camera image processing metadata such as color profiles or white balance etc.
Files are often approximately twice the file size of an equivalent Jpg.
The additional bit-depth used to store color data allows significant leeway for editing, particularly for recovering poor exposure or color imbalance.
Generally after post-processing the image is saved to an additional file format such as jpg (etc) for internet publication, or Tiff (etc) for compatibility with physical document printing houses.
Various proprietary formats of raw exist, most of their features are similar.
Raw is vaguely analogous to a film negative: It requires further processing.
Raw can to be infinitely, non-destructively edited, ignoring or including it’s original integral metadata, and with any additional modification data stored separately in text based ‘sidecar’ metadata files. This allows the master file to remain in its original state while any edits can be reloaded from relatively small text files, used to overlay the original raw data and re-edited at will.
Additional Notes:
Raw vs. DNG
Raw image format

Jpg: Convenience.

If you do not require best quality, nor the ability to recover errors, and need the image immediately: use Jpg.
Jpg data is permanently combined with any in-camera processing and destructively compressed (at the expense of color bit-depth and pixel precision) before being written to file.
Files are often approximately half the file size of an equivalent raw.
Various forms of jpg exist, most of the features relevant to photographs are similar.
Jpg is vaguely analogous to a polaroid photo: It is not intended to be edited.
Jpg images can of course be post-processed, but doing so is far less desirable because each time the file is written to jpg pixels may be moved due to compression, and the shallower color depth significantly limits editing possibilities.

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